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Useful Bibliographic Terms: Scores and Books

Types of scores

Full score - A score, usually large enough for use by a conductor, showing all parts of a work for ensemble on separate staves.
Vocal score - A score of a work for orchestra and chorus showing all the vocal parts with the orchestral accompaniment reduced and adapted for keyboard. 
Piano score - A piano reduction of an orchestral work.
Miniature score or study score - A full score that has been reduced in physical size. 
Short score (particella) - A score in which a work for large ensemble is written out on just a few staves, usually three or four, often with indications of instrumentation.  Composers sometimes create a short scores before preparing complete orchestrations. 
Tablature - A type of notation which indicates fingering rather than pitches, and used for pieces for keyboard and fretted instruments, such as the guitar and lute. 
Lead sheet - A score showing only the melody and lyrics of a song with chord symbols above the staff. 



Book terminology

Volume - One of a set of books, or a single book. From the Latin volumen, meaning a roll or scroll.
Folio - 1) A leaf of a book or manuscript, folded once with a page on each of four sides. 2) A book made up of leaves folded in this way. 3) A page or volume more than 15" in height.
Foliation - The consecutive numbering of the folios of a book, as opposed to the numbering of the pages.
Page - One side of a leaf or folio.
Pagination - The consecutive numbering of the pages.
Fascicle - One of the divisions of a book published in parts.
Opening - Two pages that face one another in a book.
Recto - Right-hand page of an opening.
Verso - Left-hand page of an opening.
Watermark - A paper manufacturer's identifying mark embedded in each sheet and usually visible when held up to the light.