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History: Citation & Writing Help

Welcome to the library guide for history research at the University of Alabama.

Writing Help

You can get one-on-one help by making an appointment at the UA Writing Center.

Examples of Chicago Style


For a Footnote or Endnote:

1. C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1951), 91–95.

For a Bibliography (Works Cited):

Woodward, C. Vann.  Origins of the New South, 1877-1913.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1951.

Journal Article:

For a Footnote or Endnote:

1. Paul Mokrzycki, "After the Stand Comes the Fall: Racial Integration and White Student Reactions at the University of Alabama, 1963-1976," Alabama Review 65, no. 4 (October 2012): 311.

For a Bibliography (Works Cited):

Mokrzycki, Paul.  "After the Stand Comes the Fall: Racial Integration and White Student Reactions at the University of Alabama, 1963-1976." Alabama Review65, no. 4 (October 2012): 290-313.

Chicago Manual of Style Online

Chicago Manual of Style-- the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition serves as the official guide to citing sources in history.  

To cite sources in Chicago Style:

1.  Enter the Chicago Manual of Style

2.  Select the "Quick Guide" link on the right side of the screen. 

3.  Scroll through the Quick Guide to find examples for citing books, articles, and other basic types of materials:

>>>If you can't find the example you need in the Quick Guide, you can find examples of how to cite many other types of materials by using the search box at the top right of the Chicago Manual.

Writer's Shelf

  1. The Elements of Style--by William Strunk Jr., is a highly recommended guide to grammar.
  2. Oxford English Dictionary--the largest dictionary of the English language, includes the formal vocabulary as well as the slang of earlier historical periods.
  3. Oxford Reference Online Premium--search hundreds of scholarly encyclopedias at the same time for an introductory essay and mini-bibliography on your topic.
  4. good free almanac.

Using Shortcuts in Microsoft Word

Create a footnote or endnote in Microsoft Word. 

Microsoft Word 2010

Microsoft Word 2011 (Macs)

Pages (iPads)


The UA Libraries offers software called RefWorks that can help you organize and cite the sources in your bibliography in Chicago.  I especially recommend RefWorks to those working on advanced projects like seminar papers and dissertations. Watch these tutorials to learn more about using RefWorks. 

To Quote or Not To Quote?

In general you want to limit quotations to "gems"--very well-written sentences and phrases from primary sources.  Try to paraphrase as much as possible.  Here are some more tips on quoting and paraphrasing.